Essay on law and order in nepal

Cybercrime in Nepal – Cyber Law and Its Challenge

My country Nepal is situated between two large countries Chine and India. According to the census report of A. The area of her is 1,47, square kilometer. The density of population is normal.

Only people are living in a square kilometer but the density of population in urban regions is higher than in rural regions. Similarly, valleys and plains are more densely populated the hilly regions.

Nepal is an ago-based country. Sixty five percentage people completely depend on agricultural in Nepal.

Some of the educated people are employed in other sectors such as teaching, office work, business, etc. The followers essay on law and order in nepal one religion respect the people who belong to another religions. She is a Hindu state people enjoy right to other religions too. The feeling and practice of fraternity fosters the rapport between the people. People speak different languages and enjoy different modes of cultures, traditions and festivals.

Nepal is famous for angelic natural beauties, unique wonders and gifts in the world. Although she is land-locked, the people from foreign countries are fond of visiting her. She is best article writing service in pakistan for mountains, rivers, lakes etc. Everestessay on law and order in nepal many foreign tourists every year. Through tourism, she is able to earn foreign currency which can be used on development projects.

Nepal is rich in water resources. Many rivers flow from high mountains twisting and turning round the hills and move through the Terai. Many brooks and streams serve the people in many ways. They are advantageous for irrigation, transportation, rafting running hydro-electricity projects and so on and so forth. In face, we can get many advantages from forests. Our country Nepal seems to be beautiful because of the green forest, but nowadays the forest is being destroyed in many ways.

Deforestation may result many natural disasters such as landslides, over-flood, soil erosion, desertification, and siltation of rivers and lakes. Depaul creative writing mfa the programmes of afforestation and reforestation have preserved the forest, the dwelling of the wild animals.

National parks and wild-life reserves preserve many wild animals and birds. Many tourists come to Nepal to watch them. Nepal is a developing country.

About 50 percentage of people are literate. Many schools and collages have been running all over the country. In order to advance the socio-economic status of the farmers, they are provide with the facilities of irrigation, modern fertilizers, improved seeds and modern methods of farming.

The facilities of electricity, health care, transportation and communication are also increasing. I feel proud to be the citizen of Nepal. We Nepali people respect each other. We are co-operative. I do feel most of the people love the nation. We feel that mother and motherland are same. I essay on law and order in nepal hope that our country Nepal will be the best and most famous country in the world.

There are large someone do my homework reddit of essay writing service are available on internet,but cheap essay writing service providing genuine services for creative writing studies conference 2019. There is a lot of spelling mistake please correct that. Thanku my homework is complete by your essay.

First I all I will like to give thanks to that people who has publish this essay to internet because I was in the search of essay in my country and I found this essay an I think I will secure good mark if essay about my country fine in my exam. There are some mistakes but thank you because of you I finish my hw. Thank you Mr. Jash Bahadur for publishing essay about our country in internet so that from all over world can read and know abut out country.

Everest, fascinates many foreign tourists every year. I do hope that our country Nepal will be the best and most famous country in the world Posted in: Country,Essay,Nepal.

Essay on law and order in nepal you have any problems with writing, feel free to ask our writers for help! Essay was quite good but your grammer was incorrect. Essay is good but there's a lot of mistakes please correct it and thank u my homework is complete. Post a Comment. English Written. Wednesday, March 19, Essay on My country Nepal. Posted in: CountryEssayNepal.

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Bala says:. April 27, at AM Reply. July 3, at AM Reply. August 26, at PM Reply. August 27, at AM Reply. Our country Nepal is rich in natural beauties gifts, resources and wonders. There are many places and things of cultural, histo Essay on Technical Education. The education which provides special practical knowledge and skills in known as technical education.

It is differen Essay on My country Nepal. Essay on Child Rights in Nepal. Human beings want to enjoy freedom, justice and peace. Children naturally want to enjoy rights.



Essay on law and order in nepal



It is mainly in the Himalayas , but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is the 49th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. Nepal has a diverse geography , including fertile plains , subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains , including Mount Everest , the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and the largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic country, with Nepali as the official language.

The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent , the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans , and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala.

The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture.

By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire , under its Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in , but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in and The Nepalese Civil War in the s and early s resulted in the establishment of a secular republic in , ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.

The Constitution of Nepal , adopted in , affirms Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.

It remains the only multi-party, fully democratic nation in the world ruled by a communist party. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in , and friendship treaties were signed with India in and the People's Republic of China in The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia; it is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars , and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.

Before the unification of Nepal , the Kathmandu valley was known as Nepal. Nepal appears in ancient Indian literary texts dated as far back as the fourth century BC. However, an absolute chronology can not be established, as even the oldest texts may contain anonymous contributions dating as late as the early modern period. Academic attempts to provide a plausible theory are hindered by the lack of a complete picture of history, and insufficient understanding of linguistics or relevant Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman languages.

He considered Ne Muni to be a fabrication. By 55, years ago, the first modern humans had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved. After BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan. It is possible that the Dravidian people whose history predates the onset of the Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent around BCE inhabited the area before the arrival of other ethnic groups like the Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans from across the border.

According to Hogdson , the earliest inhabitants of Nepal were perhaps the Kusunda people, probably of proto-Australoid origin. In the south-eastern region, Janakpurdham was the capital of the prosperous kingdom of Videha or Mithila, that extended down to the Ganges, and home to King Janaka and his daughter, Sita. Around BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who later renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism , and came to be known as Gautama Buddha traditionally dated — BCE.

Emperor Ashoka made a pilgrimage to Lumbini and erected a pillar at Buddha's birthplace, the inscriptions on which mark the starting point for properly recorded history of Nepal. In the Kathmandu valley, the Kiratas were pushed eastward by the Lichchhavis , and the Lichchhavi dynasty came into power c.

The Lichchhavis built monuments and left a series of inscriptions; Nepal's history of the period is pieced together almost entirely from them.

Parts of Nepal and Licchavi was later under the direct influences of the Tibetan empire. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late 8th century, and was followed by a Thakuri rule. Thakuri kings ruled over the country up to the middle of the 11th century CE; not much is known of this period that is often called the dark period. In the 11th century, a powerful empire of Khas people emerged in western Nepal whose territory at its highest peak included much of western Nepal as well as parts of western Tibet and Uttarakhand of India.

By the 14th century, the empire had splintered into loosely associated Baise rajyas , literally 22 states as they were counted. The rich culture and language of the Khas people spread throughout Nepal and as far as Indo-China in the intervening centuries; their language , later renamed Nepali language, became the lingua franca of Nepal as well as much of North-east India.

In south-eastern Nepal, Simraungarh annexed Mithila around CE, and the unified Tirhut stood as a powerful kingdom for more than years, [54] even ruling over Kathmandu for a time. In the Kathmandu valley, the Mallas , who make several appearances in Nepalese history since ancient times, had established themselves in Kathmandu and Patan by middle of the 14th century.

The Mallas ruled the valley first under the suzerainty of Tirhut, but established independent reign by late 14th century as Tirhut went into decline. In the late 14th century, Jayasthiti Malla introduced widespread socio-economic reforms, principal of which was the caste system.

By dividing the indigenous non-Aryan Buddhist population into castes modelled after the four Varna system of Hinduism, he provided an influential model for the Sanskritization and Hinduization of the indigenous non-Hindu tribal populations in all principalities throughout Nepal. By the middle of the 15th century, Kathmandu had become a powerful empire which, according to Kirkpatrick , extended from Digarchi or Sigatse in Tibet to Tirhut and Gaya in India.

The competition for prestige among these brotherly kingdoms saw the flourishing of art and architecture in central Nepal, and the building of famous Kathmandu , Patan and Bhaktapur Durbar Squares ; their division and mistrust led to their fall in the late 18th century, and ultimately, unification of Nepal into a modern state.

Apart from one destructive sacking of Kathmandu in the early 13th century, Nepal remain largely untouched by the Muslim invasion of India that began in the 11th century. However, the Mughal period saw an influx of high-caste Hindus from India into Nepal. They soon intermingled with the Khas people and by the 16th century, there were about 50 Rajput-ruled principalities in Nepal, including the 22 baisi states and, to their east in west-central Nepal, 24 Chaubisi states.

There emerged a view that Nepal remained the true bastion of unadulterated Hinduism at a time when Indian culture had been influenced by centuries of Mughal, followed by British rule. Gorkha , one of the Baisi states, emerged as an influential and ambitious kingdom with a reputation for justice, after it codified the first Hinduism-based laws in the Nepalese hills.

In the midth century, Prithvi Narayan Shah , a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present-day Nepal. He embarked on his mission by securing the neutrality of the bordering mountain kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur , he managed to conquer the Kathmandu Valley in The Gorkha control reached its height when the North Indian territories of the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms in the west to Sikkim in the east came under Nepalese control.

A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Qing Emperor of China to start the Sino-Nepali War compelling the Nepali to retreat to their own borders in the north. At first, the British underestimated the Nepali and were soundly defeated until committing more military resources than they had anticipated needing.

Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Sugauli Treaty , under which Nepal ceded recently captured lands. Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. In , a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Bahadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader.

This led to the Kot massacre ; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Rebellion of and later in both World Wars. In some parts of the western Terai region were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture because of her military help to sustain British control in India during the rebellion known as Naya Muluk , new country.

In , the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship that superseded the Sugauli Treaty of The Hindu practice of Sati , in which a widow sacrificed herself in the funeral pyre of her husband, was banned in , and slavery was officially abolished in In the late s, newly emerging pro-democracy movements and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy.

Following the success of Indian Independence Movement which Nepalese activists had taken part in, with India's support and cooperation of King Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress was successful in toppling the Rana regime, establishing a parliamentary democracy. After a decade of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra ruled — scrapped the democratic experiment in , and a "partyless" Panchayat system was created to govern Nepal. The political parties were banned and politicians imprisoned or exiled.

The Panchayat rule modernised the country, introducing reforms and developing infrastructure, but curtailed liberties and imposed heavy censorship.

In , the People's Movement forced King Birendra ruled — to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty democracy. In , the Maoist Party started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's republic. The Maoist Party joined mainstream politics following the success of the peaceful democratic revolution of ; [69] Nepal became a secular state , [70] and on 28 May , it was declared a republic, [69] ending its time-honoured status as the world's only Hindu Kingdom.

After a decade of instability and internal strife which saw two constituent assembly elections, the new constitution was promulgated on 20 September , making Nepal a federal democratic republic divided into seven provinces.

In the western region, rivers which were too strong to be hampered, cut some of the world's deepest gorges. Nepal is divided into three principal physiographic belts known as Himal - Pahad - Terai. Pahad is the mountain region that does not generally contain snow. The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Terai is the lowland region containing some hill ranges. The plains were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Koshi , the Narayani , and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline.

This region has subtropical to tropical climate. Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows to the Indian Ocean. Severe flooding and landslides cause deaths and disease, destroy farmlands and cripple the transport infrastructure of the country, during the monsoon season each year. Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes.

Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon , autumn, winter and spring. The Himalayas block cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and form the northern limits of the monsoon wind patterns.

Nepal contains a disproportionately large diversity of plants and animals, relative to its size. Among the notable trees, are the astringent Azadirachta indica , or neem , which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine , [94] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa , or peepal , [95] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro , [96] and under which Gautam Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.

Most of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of the lower himalayan region is descended from the tethyan tertiary flora. Nepal contains IUCN -designated threatened species , 88 of them animal species, 18 plant species and one species of "fungi or protist" group. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas , first established in with the enactment of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act , [] was substantially expanded.

Vulture restaurants [89] coupled with a ban on veterinary usage of diclofenac has seen a rise in the number of white-rumped vultures. Nepal is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. In the s, a vibrant underground political movement rose in the capital, birthing Nepal Praja Parishad in , [] which was dissolved seven years later, following the execution of the four great martyrs.

Around the same time, Nepalis involved in the Indian Independence Movement started organizing into political parties, leading to the birth of Nepali Congress and Communist Party of Nepal. After the joint civil resistance launched by the United Left Front and Nepali Congress overthrew the Panchayat in , [] [] the Front became CPN UML , adopted multi-party democracy, and in the brief period it was in government, introduced welfare programs that remain popular.

Rule of Law in Nepal

First I all I will like to give thanks to that people who has publish this essay to internet because I was in the search of essay in my country and I found this essay an I think I will secure good mark if essay about my country fine in my exam. There are some mistakes but thank you because of you I finish my hw.

Thank you Mr. Jash Bahadur for publishing essay about our country in internet so that from all over world can read and know abut out country.

Everest, fascinates many foreign tourists every year. I do hope that our country Nepal will be the best and most famous country in the world Posted in: Country,Essay,Nepal. If you have any problems with writing, feel free to ask our writers for help!

Essay was quite good but your grammer was incorrect. Essay is good but there's a lot of mistakes please correct it and thank u my homework is complete. Post a Comment. English Written. Wednesday, March 19, Essay on My country Nepal. Posted in: Country , Essay , Nepal. Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook. Newer Post Older Post Home. September 19, at PM Reply. Unknown says:. November 22, at PM Reply.

February 11, at AM Reply. February 13, at PM Reply. March 19, at PM Reply. April 23, at AM Reply. June 28, at AM Reply. July 5, at AM Reply. September 12, at AM Reply. September 16, at AM Reply. Dhan Gurung says:. October 21, at AM Reply. January 7, at AM Reply. Anna says:. January 25, at AM Reply. March 11, at AM Reply. April 21, at PM Reply. June 27, at AM Reply. July 11, at AM Reply. September 10, at PM Reply. September 23, at AM Reply. November 13, at AM Reply.

December 10, at PM Reply. January 9, at AM Reply. February 19, at AM Reply. March 1, at PM Reply. Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon , autumn, winter and spring. The Himalayas block cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and form the northern limits of the monsoon wind patterns. Nepal contains a disproportionately large diversity of plants and animals, relative to its size.

Among the notable trees, are the astringent Azadirachta indica , or neem , which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine , [94] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa , or peepal , [95] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro , [96] and under which Gautam Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.

Most of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of the lower himalayan region is descended from the tethyan tertiary flora. Nepal contains IUCN -designated threatened species , 88 of them animal species, 18 plant species and one species of "fungi or protist" group.

In response, the system of national parks and protected areas , first established in with the enactment of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act , [] was substantially expanded. Vulture restaurants [89] coupled with a ban on veterinary usage of diclofenac has seen a rise in the number of white-rumped vultures. Nepal is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. In the s, a vibrant underground political movement rose in the capital, birthing Nepal Praja Parishad in , [] which was dissolved seven years later, following the execution of the four great martyrs.

Around the same time, Nepalis involved in the Indian Independence Movement started organizing into political parties, leading to the birth of Nepali Congress and Communist Party of Nepal. After the joint civil resistance launched by the United Left Front and Nepali Congress overthrew the Panchayat in , [] [] the Front became CPN UML , adopted multi-party democracy, and in the brief period it was in government, introduced welfare programs that remain popular.

The transition period between and saw sustained protests from the newly formed ethnocentric nationalist movements, principal among them the Madhes Movement. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution of Nepal. It defines Nepal as having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of allegiance to the national independence, territorial integrity, national interest, and prosperity of Nepal.

The Government of Nepal has three branches: [3]. Nepal is a federal republic comprising 7 provinces. Each province is composed of 8 to 14 districts. The districts, in turn, comprise local units known as urban and rural municipalities.

There are 6, wards in total. The local governments enjoy executive and legislative as well as limited judicial powers in their local jurisdiction. The provinces have unicameral parliamentary Westminster system of governance. The district coordination committee, a committee composed of all elected officials from the local governments in the district, has a very limited role. The Constitution of Nepal is the supreme law of the land, and any other laws contradicting it are automatically invalid to the extent of the contradiction.

Nepali laws are considered generally more progressive compared to other developing countries, and in some instances, many developed ones. Death penalty has been abolished. It recognises marital rape and supports abortion rights; however, owing to a rise in sex-selective abortion, constraints have been introduced.

Some legal provisions, guided by socio-economic, cultural and religious sensibilities, remain discriminatory. There is gender-based discrimination against foreign nationals married to Nepali citizens. Many laws remain unenforced in practice. Nepal Police is the primary law enforcement agency.

It is an independent organization under the command of the Inspector General , who is appointed by and reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs. In addition to maintaining law and order, it is responsible for management of road traffic, which is undertaken by Nepal Traffic Police. Nepal Armed Police Force , a separate paramilitary police organization, works in cooperation with Nepal police in routine security matters; it is intended for crowd control, counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism actions, and other internal matters where use of force may be necessary.

The Crime Investigation Department of Nepal Police specializes in criminal investigation and forensic analysis. Nepal depends on diplomacy for national defence. It maintains a policy of neutrality between its neighbours, has amicable relations with other countries in the region, and has a policy of non-alignment at the global stage.

It has bilateral diplomatic relations with countries and the EU, [] has embassies in 30 countries [] and six consulates, [] while 25 countries maintain embassies in Nepal, and more than 80 others maintain non-residential diplomatic missions. Nepal pursues a policy of "balanced relations" with the two giant immediate neighbours, India and China; [] [] the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India provides for a much closer relationship.

India is Nepal's largest trading partner, which it depends upon for all of its oil and gas, and a number of essential goods. Nepalis can own property in India, while Indians are free to live and work in Nepal. Nepal maintains neutrality in conflicts between China and India. It remains firmly committed to the One China Policy , and is known to curb anti-China activities from the Tibetan refugees in Nepal.

The President is the supreme commander of the Nepalese Army ; its routine management is handled by the Ministry of Defence. The Major imports include various finished and semi-finished goods, raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemical fertilizers, electrical and electronic devices, petroleum products, gold, and readymade garments.

Under the current trend, Nepal is expected to eradicate poverty within 20 years. The Nepali rupee has been tied to the Indian rupee at an exchange rate of 1. European Union EU Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tangible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the ineffective post government and the long-running civil war are also factors in stunting the country's economic growth and development.

Tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing industries in Nepal, employing more than a million people and contributing 7. Most of Nepal's mountaineering earning comes from Mount Everest, which is more accessible from the Nepalese side. Nepal, officially opened to westerners in , became a popular destination at the end of the hippie trail , during the s and s. The industry, disrupted by the civil war in the s, has since recovered but faces challenges to growth, owing to a lack of proper facilities for high-end tourism termed the "infrastructure bottleneck", the flag carrier in shambles, and a handful of destinations properly developed and marketed.

The home-stay tourism, in which cultural and eco-tourists stay as paying guests in the homes of indigenous people, has seen some success. The rate of unemployment and underemployment exceeds half of the working-age population, [] driving millions to seek employment abroad, mainly in India, the Gulf, and East Asia.

Mostly unskilled, uneducated, and indebted to loan sharks, these workers are swindled by the manpower companies and sent to exploitative employers or war-ridden countries under fraudulent contracts. Most do not get paid minimum wage, [] and many are forced to forfeit all or part of the wages. Estimates put Nepal's economically feasible hydro-power potential at approximately 42, MW. As most of it is generated from run-of-river ROR plants, the actual power produced is much lower in the dry winter months when peak demand can reach as high as 1, MW, and Nepal needs to import as much as MW from India to meet the demands.

Nepal remains isolated from the world's major land, air and sea transport routes, although, within the country, aviation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 11 of them with paved runways; [] flights are frequent and support a sizeable traffic. The hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of the country has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Kolkata in India. The national carrier, Nepal Airlines , is in poor shape due to mismanagement and corruption, and has been blacklisted by the EU.

As of [update] , the state operates three television stations as well as national and regional radio stations. There are private TV channels and FM radio stations licensed for operation, at least of them, community radio stations.

The citizens of Nepal are known as Nepali or Nepalese. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of the eastern region, Newars of the Kathmandu Valley , aboriginal Tharus of the Terai plains and the Khas Pahari people of the far-western hills. Despite the migration of a significant section of the population to the Terai in recent years, the majority of Nepalese still live in the central highlands, and the northern mountains are sparsely populated.

Nepal is a multicultural and multiethnic country, home to distinct ethnic groups, speaking different mother tongues and following a number of indigenous and folk religions in addition to Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. From to , the average family size declined from 5. The census also noted some 1. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio to Nepal is one of the ten least urbanized, and the ten fastest urbanizing countries in the world. As of [update] , an estimated Urbanization rate is high in the Terai, doon valleys of the inner Terai and valleys of the middle hills, but low in the high Himalayas.

Similarly, the rate is higher in central and eastern Nepal compared to further west. Congestion, pollution and drinking water shortage are some of the major problems facing the rapidly growing cities, most prominently the Kathmandu Valley.

Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage stems from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan , Tibeto-Burman , and various indigenous language isolates.

The major languages of Nepal percent spoken as native language according to the census are Nepali Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages. Descendent of Sanskrit , Nepali is written in Devanagari script. It is the official language and serves as lingua franca among Nepali of different ethnolinguistic groups.

Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Tibetan is widely understood by those with religious education.

Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet. Free basic education is guaranteed in the constitution but the programme lacks funding for effective implementation. Health care services in Nepal are provided by both the public and private sectors. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 71 years as of , rd highest in the world, [] up from 54 years in the s.

Nepal has made great progress in maternal and child health. Public health centres provide 72 essential medicines free of cost. In addition, the public health insurance plan initiated in which covers health treatments of up to Rs 50, for five members of a family, for a premium of Rs per year, has seen limited success, and is expected to expand.

Nepal has a long tradition of accepting immigrants and refugees. Tibetan refugees began arriving in , [] and many more cross into Nepal every year. Most of them have been resettled in third countries. The government lacks data on Indian immigrants as they do not require permits to live and work in Nepal; [] Government of India puts the number of non-resident Indians in the country at , Traditional Nepali society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Nepali caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in South Asia.

Nepal declared untouchability to be illegal in [] and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace and educational institutions in urban Nepal, caste-related identification has pretty much lost its importance. Family values are important in the Nepali tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in Nepal, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.

An overwhelming majority of Nepalis, with or without their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low, with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce.

Many Nepali festivals are religious in origin. The emblem of Nepal depicts the snowy Himalayas, the forested hills, and the fertile Terai, supported by a wreath of rhododendrons, with the national flag at the crest and in the foreground, a plain white map of Nepal below it, and a man's and woman's right hands joined to signify gender equality. At the bottom is the national motto, a Sanskrit quote of patriotism attributed in Nepali folklore to Lord Rama, written in Devanagari script—" Mother and motherland are greater than heaven ".

Nepal's flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape. The flag's blue border signifies Nepali people's desire for peace. The moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalis, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepali warriors.

The president is the symbol of national unity. The martyrs are the symbols of patriotism. A special designation of "National hero" has been conferred to 16 people from Nepal's history for their exceptional contributions to the prestige of Nepal. Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of modern Nepal, is held in high regard and considered "Father of the Nation" by many. The oldest known examples of architecture in Nepal are stupas of early Buddhist constructions in and around Kapilvastu in south-western Nepal, and those constructed by Ashoka in the Kathmandu Valley c.

The characteristic architecture associated exclusively with Nepal was developed and refined by Newa artisans of the Kathmandu Valley starting no later than the Lichchhavi period.

A Tang dynasty Chinese travel book, probably based on records from c. It describes a magnificent seven-storied pagoda in the middle of a palace, with copper-tiled roofs, its balustrade, grills, columns and beams set about with fine and precious stones, and four golden sculptures of Makaras in the four corners of the base spouting water from their mouths like a fountain, supplied by copper pipes connected to the runnels at the top of the tower.

Later Chinese chronicles describe Nepal's king's palace as an immense structure with many roofs, suggesting that Chinese were not yet familiar with the pagoda architecture, which has now become one of the chief characteristic of Chinese architecture. A typical pagoda temple is built with wood, every piece of it finely carved with geometrical patterns or images of gods, goddesses, mythical beings and beasts. The roofs usually tiled with clay, and sometimes gold plated, diminish in proportion successively until the topmost roof is reached which is itself ensigned by a golden finial.

The base is usually composed of rectangular terraces of finely carved stone; the entrance is usually guarded by stone sculptures of conventional figures. Bronze and copper craftsmanship observable in the sculpture of deities and beasts, decorations of doors and windows and the finials of buildings, as well as items of every day use is found to be of equal splendour.

The most well-developed of Nepali painting traditions is the thanka or paubha painting tradition of Tibetan Buddhism , practised in Nepal by the Buddhist monks and Newar artisans.

Changu Narayan Temple , built c. The "ankhijhyal" window , that allow a one-way view of the outside world, is an example of unique Nepali woodcraft, found in building structures, domestic and public alike, ancient and modern. Many cultures paint the walls of their homes with regular patterns, figures of gods and beasts and religious symbols; others paint their walls plain, often with clay or chernozem contrasted with yellow soil or limestone.

The roofs of religious as well as domestic structures project considerably, presumably to provide protection from the sun and the rain. The timber of domestic structures are finely carved as with their religious counterparts.

Nepal's literature was closely intertwined with that of the rest of South Asia until its unification into a modern kingdom.

Literary works, which were written in Sanskrit by Brahmin priests educated and sometimes also based in Varanasi, included religious texts and other fantasies involving kings, gods and demons. However, Newar literature dates back almost years. Influenced by western literary traditions, writers in this period started producing literary works addressing the contemporary social problems, [] while many others continued to enrich Nepali poetic traditions with authentic Nepali poetry.

Newar literature also emerged as a premier literary tradition. After the advent of democracy in , Nepali literature flourished. Literary works in many other languages began to be produced. Nepali literature continued to modernise, and in recent years, has been strongly influenced by the post civil-war Nepali experience as well as global literary traditions. Maruni , Lakhey , Sakela , Kauda and Tamang Selo are some examples of the traditional Nepali music and dance in the hilly regions of Nepal.

Nepali film industry is known as "Kollywood". Nepal Academy is the foremost institution for the promotion of arts and culture in Nepal, established in The most widely worn traditional dress in Nepal, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped.

It has been combined with an underskirt, or the petticoat , and tucked in the waistband for more secure fastening. It is worn with a blouse , or cholo , which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end, passing over the shoulder, now serving to obscure the upper body's contours, and to cover the midriff. In its more traditional form, as part of traditional dresses and as worn in daily life while performing household chores or labour, it takes the form of a fariya or gunyu , usually shorter than a sari in length as well as breadth, and all of it wrapped around the lower body.

For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti , has served as a lower-body garment. Dhoti or its variants, usually worn over a langauti , constitute the lower-body garment in the traditional clothing of Tharus, Gurungs and Magars as well as the Madhesi people, among others.

Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the Patukas a length of cloth wrapped tightly over the waist by both sexes as a waistband, a part of most traditional Nepali costumes, usually with a Khukuri tucked into it when worn by men , scarves like Pachhyauras and majetros and shawls like the Newar Ga and Tibetan khata , Ghumtos the wedding veils and various kinds of turbans scarves worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold, [] called a Pheta , Pagri or Sirpau.

Until the beginning of the first millennium CE, the ordinary dress of people in South Asia was entirely unstitched. Men continue to wear bhoto through adulthood. Upper body garment for men is usually a vest such as the bhoto, or a shirt similar to the Kurta , such as Daura, a closed-necked double-breasted long shirt with five pleats and eight strings that serve to tie it around the body. Suruwal, simply translated as a pair of trousers, is an alternative to and, more recently, replacement for dhoti, kachhad Magars or Lungi Tharus ; it is traditionally much wider above the knees but tapers below, to fit tightly at the ankles, and is tied to the waist with a drawstring.

Modern cholos worn with sarees are usually half-sleeved and single-breasted, and do not cover the midriff. The traditional one called the chaubandi cholo, like the daura, is full-sleeved, double-breasted with pleats and strings, and extends down to the patuka, covering the midriff. Daura-Suruwal and Gunyu-Cholo were the national dresses for men and women respectively until when they were removed to eliminate favouritism.

For many other groups, men's traditional dresses consist of a shirt or a vest, paired with a dhoti, kachhad or lungi. In the high himalayas, the traditional dresses are largely influenced by Tibetan culture. Sherpa women wear the chuba with the pangi apron, while Sherpa men wear shirts with stiff high collar and long sleeves called tetung under the chuba. Tibetan Xamo Gyaise hats of the Sherpas, dhaka topi of pahari men and tamang round caps are among the more distinctive headwears.

Married Hindu women wear tika, sindur, pote and red bangles. Jewellery of gold and silver, and sometimes precious stones, are common. Gold jewellery includes Mangalsutras and tilaharis worn with the pote by the Hindus, Samyafung a huge gold flower worn on the head and Nessey huge flattened gold earrings worn by the Limbus, and Sirphuli, Sirbandhi and Chandra worn by the Magars.

Tharu women can wear as much as six kilograms of silver in jewellery, which includes Mangiya worn on the head, tikuli the forehead, and kanseri and tikahamala around the neck. In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in Nepal. Increasingly, in urban settings, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions. The traditional kurta suruwal is rarely worn by younger women, who increasingly favour jeans.

The dhoti has largely been reduced to the liturgical vestment of shamans and Hindu priests. Nepali cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Each became staples of use. Rice and wheat are mostly cultivated in the terai plains and well-irrigated valleys, and maize, millet, barley and buckwheat in the lesser fertile and drier hills.

The foundation of a typical Nepali meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes. The unleavened flat bread made from wheat flour called chapati occasionally replaces the steamed rice, particularly in the Terai, while Dhindo, prepared by boiling corn, millet or buckwheat flour in water, continuously stirring and adding flour until thick, almost solid consistency is reached, is the main substitute in the hills and mountains.

Tsampa, flour made from roasted barley or naked barley, is the main staple in the high himalayas. Throughout Nepal, fermented, then sun-dried, leafy greens called Gundruk , are both a delicacy and a vital substitute for fresh vegetables in the winter.

A notable feature of Nepali food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents. Nepali cuisines possess their own distinctive qualities to distinguish these hybrid cuisines from both their northern and southern neighbours. Kwanti sprouted beans soup , chhwela ground beef , chatamari , rice flour crepe , bara fried lentil cake , kachila marinated raw minced beef , samaybaji centred around flattened rice , lakhaamari and yomuri are among the more widely recognised.

Various communities in the Terai make sidhara sun-dried small fish mixed with taro leaves and biriya lentil paste mixed with taro leaves to stock for the monsoon floods. Rice pulau or sweet rice porridge called kheer are usually the main dish in feasts. Almost all janajati communities have their own traditional methods of brewing alcohol. Raksi traditional distilled alcohol , jaand rice beer , tongba millet beer and chyaang are the most well-known. Nepali indigenous sports, like dandi biyo and kabaddi which were considered the unofficial national sports until recently, [] are still popular in rural areas.

Rubber bands , or ranger bands cut from tubes in bike tyres, make a multi-purpose sporting equipment for Nepali children, which may be bunched or chained together, and used to play dodgeball , cat's cradle , jianzi [] and a variety of skipping rope games. Football and cricket are popular professional sports. The only international stadium in the country is the multi-purpose Dasarath Stadium where the men and women national football teams play their home matches. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nepal disambiguation. Country in South Asia. Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Area controlled by Nepal shown in dark green; regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green. Main article: History of Nepal. Main article: Kingdom of Nepal. Clockwise from upper left: a Prithvi Narayan Shah b An map of the Indian subcontinent showing Nepal at its zenith c Balbhadra Kunwar , who, at age 25, commanded the defence of Nalapani fort against a superior British force, and after the enemy cutoff the water supply, charged out with 70 men d Jung Bahadur Rana , who established the autocratic Rana regime in and instituted a pro-British foreign policy.

Main articles: Geography of Nepal and Geology of Nepal. Main article: Wildlife of Nepal. See also: Protected areas of Nepal and Community forestry in Nepal. Main article: Politics of Nepal. Main articles: Government of Nepal and Constitution of Nepal.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Nepal. Province 2. Province 1. Main article: Law enforcement in Nepal. Main article: Foreign relations of Nepal. Main article: Nepalese Army. Main article: Economy of Nepal. Main article: Tourism in Nepal. Main article: Demographics of Nepal. Main article: Languages of Nepal.

Main article: Religion in Nepal. Main article: Education in Nepal. Main article: Health in Nepal. Main article: Culture of Nepal. Main article: Architecture of Nepal. Clockwise from top-left: a Nyatapola , a five storied pagoda in Bhaktapur, bejewelled with characteristic stone, metal and wood craftsmanship, has survived at least four major earthquakes.

Main article: Nepalese cuisine. Main article: Sports in Nepal. Nepal portal. Consequently, Nepala translates to protected by Ne. As this issue has yet to be settled, the forest-type classification is generally preferred to the ecological categorization. Retrieved 29 June Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 16 July — via Nepal Law Commission. Retrieved 17 April The Rising Nepal.

The Himalayan Times. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 13 February Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal. The fact that any differences between Nepal and Sikkim will be "referred to the arbitration of the East India Company" sees Nepal as a semi-independent or a vassal state or tributary of the British empire.

Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 15 April World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 16 April Government has 3 organs: Executive, Judiciary, Legislative. And the poverty situation is improved in recent years. Nepal was a Hindu Rashtra before Nepal declared a secular state in Interim Constitution in Justice System A.

The chief executive is prime minister. And there is a member Constituent Assembly responsible for drafting a new constitution. However, because parties could not reach an agreement, the Constituent Assembly failed to make the constitution even the deadline has been put off for several times.

The country is no longer ruled by man. And the constitution has already had a year development. These points meet the requirement of Rule of Law 2 Regulation by Law. However, Constituent Assembly failed to carry out new constitution in time, some of the main problems of the country remains unsolved such as the demarcation of national administrative zones. So there is still uncertainties in peace process in Nepal. This fact cannot satisfy the point raised in lecture notes " Public order is basically maintained and disputes in the society are mainly resolved through peaceful and legal means"4.

Based on those facts above, although sovereign adopts law as the major governing tool, we cannot safely draw the conclusion that Nepal has reached Rule of Law 2 in constitution topic. Justice System The justice system in Nepal has a foundation of historical local tradition. And it has also adopted many characteristics from Western systems.

As mentioned above, sovereign is separated into 3 parts: Executive, Judiciary and Legislature. But those external limits through law run not that well. There are several problem exists: 1. About Internal Mechanism to Ensure Officials' Compliance with Law In Nepal, the police, which belongs to Home Ministry under Executive branch, was reported to have killed at least 8 person unlawful and got away with that. Also in Country Report on Human Rights Practice for Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor , it says "Authorities failed to implement court-ordered arrests of military personnel, Maoists, and other politically connected individuals accused or convicted of human rights violations.

Even internal mechanism cannot ensure officials' compliance with law. It is against some of the criteria of Rule of Law 2. And army groups, as well as political parties use threats of violence throughout the country, causing death, abductions, extortion and disappearance6. Although the situation improved these years, police were still unable to provide law and order fully to reach the criteria of Rule of Law 2. Judiciary's Problem in "Govern by Law" In rule of law 3, a "independent judicial branch" is emphasized.

These make judiciary suffer from delay problems, and a widespread disregard for judicial order and decisions. What's worse, most of the people in Nepal are too poor to use legal mechanism to resolve their disputes.

According to the facts above, we can see that Nepal is now unable to perform Judicial limitation and even the extent of "govern by law" is too limited to meet the criteria of Rule of Law 2. To determine the rule of law level of Nepal, let's use a table to draw a conclusion by using the analysis above and the questions from lecture notes. Is there at least some mechanism internal to the government to ensure government officials will comply with the law?

Can public order be basically maintained by the law? Do people resolve their disputes by using the legal mechanism peacefully? Do people in general comply with the law?

The situation now in Nepal can reach the criteria of the major question of Rule of law 2.

Existing Law

his essay, Chuda Bahadur Shrestha analyses the present structure and function of Nepal's Armed Police as providers of law and order, and peace and security. The essay also explores the future. Feb 25,  · Nepal now is a country that has exceeded 1st level of rule of law, and it is getting close to Rule of Law 2. The reason why Nepal is in a situation between the two levels is that the sovereign committed to use law as its major tool of governance, but problems still exist in power abuse, public order maintenance and law's complying by people, etc. Ser. No Formation Orders; 2: 3: baglung-hospital-development-board-formation-order 4: bhairahawa-hospital-development-board-formation-order


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