War of the roses homework help

Wars of the Roses

A quarrel between the war of the roses homework help of York and Lancaster over the right to war of the roses homework help the English throne brought on a series of cruel civil wars in England in the years to The emblem of the Yorkists was a white rose and war of the roses homework help of the Lancastrians a red rose.

Because of this the wars were called the Wars of the Roses. Richard, creative writing rules english of York, was descended through his mother from the fourth son.

Thus the Yorkists had a better claim to the throne than the Lancastrians, though they had been passed over in when Richard II was deposed. At first Richard of York planned merely to take the government from incapable persons and secure it for himself. Later his ambition was to seize the crown. His ablest supporter was the earl of Warwick. The earl played so important a part, first on one side and then on the other, that he was called the Kingmaker.

On the Lancastrian side the real head of the party was Queen Margaret, a young and beautiful Frenchwoman who fiercely resisted attempts to dethrone her husband, Henry VI, and disinherit her son, Edward. The struggle began when Richard of York won the battle of St. Albans in and secured control of the government. Four years later the contest was renewed.

Richard was finally killed by the forces of Queen Margaret at Wakefield in Henry VI was imprisoned. The next year Edward returned, and Warwick was killed in battle. Several Lancastrians were executed. The king himself was assassinated on the day that Edward IV reentered London and seized the throne once again.

This ended the first period of the struggle. Fourteen years later war broke out again. After this marriage the white and the red roses were united in the rose of the Tudors, the emblem of a new line of English kings. The Wars of the Roses broke the feudal power of the nobles and effectively marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.

Many of the ruling nobles had been slain during the wars, and their estates were confiscated by the Crown. It grew even worse during the Wars phd creative writing netherlands the Roses. Not enough able leaders remained to maintain law and order. Henry VII seized the opportunity to reestablish the royal power and to launch policies that marked the beginning of modern England.

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War of the roses homework help



The Wars of the Roses were a series of battles that took place in England from to The fighting was between two families that claimed the right to the throne—the House of York and the House of Lancaster.

They were called the Wars of the Roses because the symbol of each house was a rose. The House of York was represented by a white rose. The House of Lancaster was represented by a red rose.

Edward III was king of England from to After his death, his many children and their descendants argued over who should rule England. The descendants eventually were split into the Yorks and the Lancasters. Henry VI, a Lancaster, became king in Henry was not a strong ruler. However, his queen, Margaret of Anjou, was very influential. The government also insisted that the people pay a lot of taxes.

In Henry became mentally sick and could not rule effectively. Richard, duke of York, then became the temporary ruler of England. After Henry recovered, Richard did not want to give up his power.

This led to the first battle between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, at Saint Albans on May 22, Richard and the Yorkists won. There was an uneasy peace until Battles were fought during and Lancastrians surprised and killed Richard in December Edward IV pursued the Lancastrians to Towton, where the bloodiest battle of the war took place. The Yorkists won.

Henry, Margaret, and their son fled to Scotland. The Yorkists then began to argue among themselves. Supporters of George fought with supporters of Edward. George fled to France in He became partners with the former queen, Margaret of Anjou. However, Edward returned in He defeated the queen and king and killed their son. Edward IV became king once again. He held the throne until he died in This battle ended the Wars of the Roses. This began the reign of the House of Tudor.

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The War of the Roses

York fled to Ireland , and the Lancastrians, in a packed parliament at Coventry November , obtained a judicial condemnation of their opponents and executed those on whom they could lay hands. From then on the struggle was bitter. Both parties laid aside their scruples and struck down their opponents without mercy. In France Warwick regrouped the Yorkist forces and returned to England in June , decisively defeating the Lancastrian forces at Northampton July York tried to claim the throne but settled for the right to succeed upon the death of Henry.

Gathering forces in northern England, the Lancastrians surprised and killed York at Wakefield in December and then marched south toward London, defeating Warwick on the way at the Second Battle of St. Albans February 17, There, in the bloodiest battle of the war, the Yorkists won a complete victory. Henry, Margaret, and their son fled to Scotland.

The first phase of the fighting was over, except for the reduction of a few pockets of Lancastrian resistance. Article Contents.

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Directed by Henry's queen, the powerful and aggressive Margaret of Anjou , who emerged as the de facto leader of the Lancastrians, Richard was forced out of court. Margaret built up an alliance against Richard and conspired with other nobles to reduce his influence. An increasingly thwarted Richard who feared arrest for treason finally resorted to armed hostilities in The relatively small First Battle of St Albans was the first open conflict of the civil war.

Richard's aim was ostensibly to remove "poor advisors" from King Henry's side. The result was a Lancastrian defeat. Several prominent Lancastrian leaders, including Somerset and Northumberland, were killed. After the battle, the Yorkists found Henry hiding in a local tanner's shop , abandoned by his advisers and servants, apparently having suffered another bout of mental illness.

He had also been slightly wounded in the neck by an arrow. With the king indisposed, York was again appointed Protector, and Margaret was shunted aside, charged with the king's care. For a while, both sides seemed shocked that an actual battle had been fought and did their best to reconcile their differences, but the problems that caused conflict soon re-emerged, particularly the issue of whether the Duke of York or Henry and Margaret's infant son, Edward, would succeed to the throne.

Margaret refused to accept any solution that would disinherit her son, and it became clear that she would only tolerate the situation for as long as the Duke of York and his allies retained the military ascendancy.

Henry recovered and in February he relieved York of his office of Protector. Margaret did not allow him to return to London where the merchants were angry at the decline in trade and the widespread disorder. The king's court was set up at Coventry. By then, the new Duke of Somerset was emerging as a favourite of the royal court. Margaret persuaded Henry to revoke the appointments York had made as Protector, while York was made to return to his post as a lieutenant in Ireland.

Disorder in the capital and the north of England where fighting between the Nevilles and Percys had resumed [37] and piracy by French fleets on the south coast was growing, but the king and queen remained intent on protecting their positions, with the queen introducing conscription for the first time in England.

Meanwhile, York's ally, Warwick later dubbed "The Kingmaker" , was growing in popularity in London as the champion of the merchants; as Captain of Calais he had fought piracy in the Channel. In the spring of , Thomas Bourchier , the Archbishop of Canterbury , attempted to arrange a reconciliation. The lords had gathered in London for a Grand Council and the city was full of armed retainers. The Archbishop negotiated complex settlements to resolve the blood-feuds that had persisted since the Battle of St.

Paul's Cathedral , with Lancastrian and Yorkist nobles following him, hand in hand. The next outbreak of fighting was prompted by Warwick's high-handed actions as Captain of Calais. He led his ships in attacks on neutral Hanseatic League and Spanish ships in the Channel on flimsy grounds of sovereignty. He was summoned to London to face inquiries, but he claimed that attempts had been made on his life, and returned to Calais.

York, Salisbury, and Warwick were summoned to a royal council at Coventry, but they refused, fearing arrest when they were isolated from their supporters. Shortly afterward the combined Yorkist armies confronted the much larger Lancastrian force at the Battle of Ludford Bridge.

Warwick's contingent from the garrison of Calais under Andrew Trollope defected to the Lancastrians, and the Yorkist leaders fled. The Lancastrians were back in total control. York and his supporters were attainted at the Parliament of Devils as traitors. Somerset was appointed Governor of Calais and was dispatched to take over the vital fortress on the French coast, but his attempts to evict Warwick were easily repulsed. Warwick and his supporters even began to launch raids on the English coast from Calais, adding to the sense of chaos and disorder.

Being attainted, only by a successful invasion could the Yorkists recover their lands and titles. Backed by a papal emissary who had taken their side, they marched north.

King Henry led an army south to meet them while Margaret remained in the north with Prince Edward. At the Battle of Northampton on 10 July, the Yorkist army under Warwick defeated the Lancastrians, aided by treachery in the king's ranks. For the second time in the war, King Henry was found by the Yorkists in a tent, abandoned by his retinue, having suffered another breakdown. With the king in their possession, the Yorkists returned to London.

In the light of this military success, Richard of York moved to press his claim to the throne based on the illegitimacy of the Lancastrian line. Landing in the north Wales , he and his wife Cecily entered London with all the ceremony usually reserved for a monarch. Parliament was assembled, and when York entered he made straight for the throne, which he may have been expecting the Lords to encourage him to take for himself as they had acclaimed Henry IV in Instead, there was stunned silence.

York announced his claim to the throne, but the Lords, even Warwick, and Salisbury, were shocked by his presumption; they had no desire at this stage to overthrow King Henry. Their ambition was still limited to the removal of his councillors. The next day, York produced detailed genealogies to support his claim based on his descent from Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence.

York's claim was through the daughter of a second son, Henry's through the son of a third son. The judges felt that Common law principles could not determine who had priority in the royal succession, and declared the matter "above the law and passed their learning. A compromise was struck in October with the Act of Accord , which recognised York as Henry's successor, disinheriting Henry's six-year-old son, Edward.

York accepted this compromise as the best offer. It gave him much of what he wanted, particularly since he was also made Protector of the Realm and was able to govern in Henry's name. Queen Margaret and her son had fled to the north of Wales , parts of which were still in Lancastrian hands.

They later travelled by sea to Scotland to negotiate for Scottish assistance. Margaret agreed, although she had no funds to pay her army and could only promise booty from the riches of southern England, as long as no looting took place north of the River Trent. The Duke of York left London later that year with the Earl of Salisbury to consolidate his position in the north against the Lancastrians who were reported to be massing near the city of York.

He took up a defensive position at Sandal Castle near Wakefield over Christmas Then on 30 December, his forces left the castle and attacked the Lancastrians in the open, although outnumbered.

The ensuing Battle of Wakefield was a complete Lancastrian victory. Richard of York was slain in the battle, and both Salisbury and York's year-old second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland , were captured and executed.

Margaret ordered the heads of all three placed on the gates of York. With an army from the pro-Yorkist Marches the border area between England and Wales , he met Jasper Tudor 's Lancastrian army arriving from Wales, and he defeated them soundly at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire.

He inspired his men with a "vision" of three suns at dawn a phenomenon known as " parhelion " , telling them that it was a portent of victory and represented the three surviving York sons; himself, George and Richard.

This led to Edward's later adoption of the sign of the sunne in splendour as his personal device. Margaret's army was moving south, supporting itself by looting as it passed through the prosperous south of England. In London, Warwick used this as propaganda to reinforce Yorkist support throughout the south — the town of Coventry switched allegiance to the Yorkists.

Warwick's army established fortified positions north of the town of St Albans to block the main road from the north but was outmanoeuvred by Margaret's army, which swerved to the west and then attacked Warwick's positions from behind. As the Yorkist forces fled they left behind King Henry, who was found unharmed, sitting quietly beneath a tree.

Henry knighted thirty Lancastrian soldiers immediately after the battle. In an illustration of the increasing bitterness of the war, Queen Margaret instructed her seven-year-old son Edward of Westminster to determine the manner of execution of the Yorkist knights who had been charged with keeping Henry safe and had stayed at his side throughout the battle.

As the Lancastrian army advanced southwards, a wave of dread swept London, where rumours were rife about savage northerners intent on plundering the city. The people of London shut the city gates and refused to supply food to the queen's army, which was looting the surrounding counties of Hertfordshire and Middlesex. Edward of March, having joined with Warwick's surviving forces, advanced towards London from the west at the same time that the queen retreated northwards to Dunstable ; as a result, Edward and Warwick were able to enter London with their army.

They found considerable support there, as the city was largely Yorkist-supporting. It was clear that Edward was no longer simply trying to free the king from bad councillors, but that his goal was to take the crown. Thomas Kempe , the Bishop of London , asked the people of London their opinion and they replied with shouts of "King Edward".

The request was quickly approved by Parliament, and Edward was unofficially appointed king in an impromptu ceremony at Westminster Abbey ; Edward vowed that he would not have a formal coronation until Henry VI and his wife were removed from the scene.

Edward claimed Henry had forfeited his right to the crown by allowing his queen to take up arms against his rightful heirs under the Act of Accord.

Parliament had already accepted that Edward's victory was simply a restoration of the rightful heir to the throne. Edward and Warwick marched north, gathering a large army as they went, and met an equally impressive Lancastrian army at Towton.

Both sides agreed beforehand that the issue would be settled that day, with no quarter asked or given. An estimated 40,—80, men took part, with over 20, men being killed during and after the battle, an enormous number for the time and the greatest recorded single day's loss of life on English soil.

Edward and his army won a decisive victory, and the Lancastrians were routed, with most of their leaders slain. Henry and Margaret, who were waiting in York with their son Edward, fled north when they heard the outcome. Many of the surviving Lancastrian nobles switched allegiance to King Edward, and those who did not were driven back to the northern border areas and a few castles in Wales.

Edward advanced to take York, where he replaced the rotting heads of his father, his brother, and Salisbury with those of defeated Lancastrian lords such as the notorious John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford of Skipton-Craven, who was blamed for the execution of Edward's brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, after the Battle of Wakefield.

The official coronation of Edward IV took place on June in London, where he received a rapturous welcome from his supporters. Later in the year, they mounted an attack on Carlisle , but, lacking money, they were easily repulsed by Edward's men, who were rooting out the remaining Lancastrian forces in the northern counties. Several castles under Lancastrian commanders held out for years: Dunstanburgh , Alnwick the Percy family seat , and Bamburgh were some of the last to fall.

There was also some fighting in Ireland. The Butlers suffered more than casualties. Local folklore claims that the battle was so violent that the local river ran red with blood, hence the names Pill River and Piltown Baile an Phuill , meaning "Town of the blood".

There were Lancastrian revolts in the north of England in Several Lancastrian nobles, including the third Duke of Somerset , who had been reconciled to Edward, readily led the rebellion. The revolt was put down by Warwick's brother, John Neville. A small Lancastrian army was destroyed at the Battle of Hedgeley Moor on 25 April, but because Neville was escorting Scottish commissioners for a treaty to York, he could not immediately follow up this victory.

Then on 15 May, he routed Somerset's army at the Battle of Hexham. Somerset was captured and executed. The deposed King Henry was later captured for the third time at Clitheroe in Lancashire in He was taken to London and held prisoner at the Tower of London , where, for the time being, he was reasonably well treated. About the same time, once England under Edward IV and Scotland had come to terms, Margaret and her son were forced to leave Scotland and sail to France, where they maintained an impoverished court in exile for several years.

The powerful Earl of Warwick "the Kingmaker" had meanwhile become the greatest landowner in England. Already a great magnate through his wife's property, he had also inherited his father's estates and had been granted much forfeited Lancastrian property.

He also held many of the offices of state. He was convinced of the need for an alliance with France and had been negotiating a match between Edward and a French bride.

However, Edward had married Elizabeth Woodville , the widow of a Lancastrian knight, in secret in He later announced the news of his marriage as fait accompli , to Warwick's considerable embarrassment. This embarrassment turned to bitterness when the Woodvilles came to be favoured over the Nevilles at court.

Many of Queen Elizabeth's relatives were married into noble families and others were granted peerages or royal offices. Other factors compounded Warwick's disillusionment: Edward's preference for an alliance with Burgundy rather than France and reluctance to allow his brothers George, Duke of Clarence and Richard, Duke of Gloucester , to marry Warwick's daughters Isabel and Anne.

Furthermore, Edward's general popularity was on the wane in this period with higher taxes and persistent disruptions of law and order. By , Warwick had allied with Edward's jealous and treacherous brother George, who married Isabel Neville in defiance of Edward's wishes in Calais. They raised an army that defeated the king's forces at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. Warwick briefly had two Kings of England in his custody.

However, he made no immediate move to have Edward declared illegitimate and place George on the throne. Edward was escorted to London by Warwick's brother George Neville , the Archbishop of York , where he and Warwick were reconciled, to outward appearances.

When further rebellions broke out in Lincolnshire , Edward easily suppressed them at the Battle of Losecoat Field. From the testimony of the captured leaders, he declared that Warwick and George, Duke of Clarence, had instigated them. They were declared traitors and forced to flee to France, where Margaret of Anjou was already in exile.

Louis XI of France , who wished to forestall a hostile alliance between Edward and Edward's brother-in-law Charles the Bold , Duke of Burgundy , suggested the idea of an alliance between Warwick and Margaret. Neither of those two formerly mortal enemies entertained the notion at first, but eventually, they were brought round to realise the potential benefits. However, both were undoubtedly hoping for different outcomes: Warwick for a puppet king in the form of Henry VI or his young son; Margaret to be able to reclaim her family's realm.

In any case, a marriage was arranged between Warwick's daughter Anne and Margaret's son Edward of Westminster, and Warwick invaded England in the autumn of Edward IV had already marched north to suppress another uprising in Yorkshire. Warwick, with help from a fleet under his nephew, the Bastard of Fauconberg , landed at Dartmouth and rapidly secured support from the southern counties and ports.

Warwick's brother John Neville, who had recently received the empty title Marquess of Montagu and who led large armies in the Scottish marches, suddenly defected to Warwick.

Edward was unprepared for this event and had to order his army to scatter. They were proclaimed traitors, and many exiled Lancastrians returned to reclaim their estates. Warwick's success was short-lived, however.

He over-reached himself with his plan to invade Burgundy in alliance with the King of France, tempted by King Louis' promise of territory in the Netherlands as a reward. This led Edward's brother-in-law, Charles of Burgundy, to provide funds and troops to Edward to enable him to launch an invasion of England in Edward landed with a small force at Ravenspur on the Yorkshire coast.

Initially claiming to support Henry and to be seeking only to have his title of Duke of York restored, he soon gained the city of York and rallied several supporters.

His brother George turned traitor again, abandoning Warwick. Having outmaneuvered Warwick and Montagu, Edward captured London. His army then met Warwick's at the Battle of Barnet. The battle was fought in thick fog, and some of Warwick's men attacked each other by mistake.

It was believed by all that they had been betrayed, and Warwick's army fled. Warwick was cut down trying to reach his horse. Montagu was also killed in the battle. Margaret and her son Edward had landed in the West Country only a few days before the Battle of Barnet.

Rather than return to France, Margaret sought to join the Lancastrian supporters in Wales and marched to cross the Severn but was thwarted when the city of Gloucester refused her passage across the river. Her army, commanded by the fourth successive Duke of Somerset , was brought to battle and destroyed at the Battle of Tewkesbury.

Her son Prince Edward, the Lancastrian heir to the throne, was killed. With no heirs to succeed him, Henry VI was murdered shortly afterward, on 21 May , to strengthen the Yorkist hold on the throne. The restoration of Edward IV in is sometimes seen as marking the end of the Wars of the Roses proper. Peace was restored for the remainder of Edward's reign. His youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester , and Edward's lifelong companion and supporter, William Hastings , were generously rewarded for their loyalty, becoming effectively governors of the north and midlands respectively.

When Edward died suddenly in , political and dynastic turmoil erupted again. Many of the nobles still resented the influence of the queen's Woodville relatives her brother, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers and her son by her first marriage, Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset , and regarded them as power-hungry upstarts ' parvenus '.

At the time of Edward's premature death, his heir, Edward V , was only 12 years old and had been brought up under the stewardship of Earl Rivers at Ludlow Castle.

On his deathbed, Edward had named his surviving brother Richard of Gloucester as Protector of England. Richard had been in the north when Edward died.

Hastings, who also held the office of Lord Chamberlain , sent word to him to bring a strong force to London to counter any force the Woodvilles might muster.

Although they dined with Rivers amicably, they took him prisoner the next day and declared to Edward that they had done so to forestall a conspiracy by the Woodvilles against his life. Elizabeth Woodville had already gone hastily into the sanctuary at Westminster with her remaining children, although preparations were being made for Edward V to be crowned on 22 June, at which point Richard's authority as Protector would end.

On 13 June, Richard held a full meeting of the Council, at which he accused Hastings and others of conspiracy against him. Hastings was executed without trial later in the day. Having secured the boys, Robert Stillington , Bishop of Bath and Wells then alleged that Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville had been illegal and that the two boys were therefore illegitimate.

The two imprisoned boys, known as the " Princes in the Tower ", disappeared and are assumed to have been murdered. There was never a trial or judicial inquest on the matter.

Perkin Warbeck claimed he was the younger of the Princes from and was recognised as such by Richard's sister, the Duchess of Burgundy. Having been crowned in a lavish ceremony on 6 July, Richard then proceeded on a tour of the Midlands and the north of England, dispensing generous bounties and charters and naming his son as the Prince of Wales.

Opposition to Richard's rule had already begun in the south when, on 18 October, the Duke of Buckingham who had been instrumental in placing Richard on the throne and who himself had a distant claim to the crown led a revolt aimed at installing the Lancastrian Henry Tudor. It has been argued that his supporting Tudor rather than either Edward V or his younger brother, showed Buckingham was aware that both were already dead. John Beaufort had been illegitimate at birth, though later legitimised by the marriage of his parents.

It had supposedly been a condition of the legitimation that the Beaufort descendants forfeited their rights to the crown. Henry had spent much of his childhood under siege in Harlech Castle or exile in Brittany. After , Edward IV had preferred to belittle Henry's pretensions to the crown and made only sporadic attempts to secure him. However, his mother, Margaret Beaufort, had been twice remarried, first to Buckingham's uncle, and then to Thomas, Lord Stanley , one of Edward's principal officers, and continually promoted her son's rights.

Buckingham's rebellion failed. Some of his supporters in the south rose up prematurely, thus allowing Richard's Lieutenant in the South, the Duke of Norfolk , to prevent many rebels from joining forces. Buckingham himself raised a force at Brecon in mid-Wales. He was prevented from crossing the River Severn to join other rebels in the south of England by storms and floods, which also prevented Henry Tudor landing in the West Country. Buckingham's starving forces deserted and he was betrayed and executed.

The failure of Buckingham's revolt was clearly not the end of the plots against Richard, who could never again feel secure, and who also suffered the loss of his wife and eleven-year-old son , putting the future of the Yorkist dynasty in doubt.

Many of Buckingham's defeated supporters and other disaffected nobles fled to join Henry Tudor in exile. Richard made an attempt to bribe the Duke of Brittany's chief Minister Pierre Landais to betray Henry, but Henry was warned and escaped to France, where he was again given sanctuary and aid.

Confident that many magnates and even many of Richard's officers would join him, Henry set sail from Harfleur on 1 August , with a force of exiles and French mercenaries. With fair winds, he landed in Pembrokeshire six days later and the officers Richard had appointed in Wales either joined Henry or stood aside. Richard was slain during the battle, supposedly by the major Welsh landowner Rhys ap Thomas with a blow to the head from his poleaxe. Rhys was knighted three days later by Henry VII.

Henry, having been acclaimed King Henry VII, strengthened his position by marrying Elizabeth of York , daughter of Edward IV and the second best surviving Yorkist claimant after George of Clarence's son the new duke of Warwick, reuniting the two royal houses.

Henry merged the rival symbols of the red rose of Lancaster and the white rose of York into the new emblem of the red and white Tudor Rose.

Henry later shored up his position by executing several other claimants, a policy his son Henry VIII continued. Others argue that they continued to the end of the fifteenth century, as there were several plots to overthrow Henry and restore Yorkist claimants. The conspirators produced a pretender, a boy named Lambert Simnel , who resembled the young Edward, Earl of Warwick son of George of Clarence , the best surviving male claimant of the House of York.

The imposture was shaky because the young earl was still alive and in King Henry's custody and was paraded through London to expose the impersonation. Lincoln died in the battle. Simnel was pardoned for his part in the rebellion and was sent to work in the royal kitchens.

Henry's throne was challenged again in , with the appearance of the pretender Perkin Warbeck , who claimed he was Richard, Duke of York the younger of the two Princes in the Tower. Warbeck made several attempts to incite revolts, with support at various times from the court of Burgundy and James IV of Scotland.

He was captured after the failed Second Cornish uprising of and killed in , after attempting to escape from prison. Warwick was also executed, rendering the male-line of the House of York and by extension the whole Plantagenet dynasty excluding the legitimized Beauforts who were later renamed to the House of Somerset extinct. To an extent, England's break with Rome was prompted by Henry's fears of a disputed succession, should he leave only a female heir to the throne or an infant who would be as vulnerable as Henry VI had been to antagonistic or rapacious regents.

Historians debate the extent of impact the wars had on medieval English life. The classical view is that the many casualties among the nobility continued the changes in feudal English society caused by the effects of the Black Death. These included a weakening of the feudal power of the nobles and an increase in the power of the merchant classes and the growth of a centralised monarchy under the Tudors.

The wars heralded the end of the medieval period in England and the movement towards the Renaissance. After the wars, the large standing baronial armies that had helped fuel the conflict were suppressed. Henry VII, wary of any further fighting, kept the barons on a very tight leash, removing their right to raise, arm and supply armies of retainers so that they could not make war on each other or the king.

The military power of individual barons declined, and the Tudor court became a place where baronial squabbles were decided with the influence of the monarch. Revisionists, such as the Oxford historian K. McFarlane , suggest that the effects of the conflicts have been greatly exaggerated and that there were no wars of the roses. The effect of the wars on the merchant and labouring classes was far less than in the long-drawn-out wars of siege and pillage in Europe, which were carried out by mercenaries who profited from long wars.

Although there were some lengthy sieges, such as those of Harlech Castle and Bamburgh Castle , these were in comparatively remote and less populous regions.

In the populated areas, both factions had much to lose by the ruin of the country and sought a quick resolution of the conflict by pitched battle. The realm of England enjoys one favour above all other realms, that neither the countryside nor the people are destroyed, nor are buildings burnt or demolished.

Misfortune falls on soldiers and nobles in particular Exceptions to this claimed general rule were the Lancastrian looting of Ludlow after the largely bloodless Yorkist defeat at Ludford Bridge in , and the widespread pillaging carried out by Queen Margaret's unpaid army as it advanced south in early Both events inspired widespread opposition to the Queen, and support for the Yorkists. Many areas did little or nothing to change their city defences, perhaps an indication that they were left untouched by the wars.

City walls were either left in their ruinous state or only partially rebuilt. In the case of London, the city was able to avoid being devastated by convincing the York and Lancaster armies to stay out after the inability to recreate the defensive city walls. Few noble houses were extinguished during the wars; in the period from to , before the outbreak of the wars, there were as many extinctions of noble lines from natural causes 25 as occurred during the fighting 24 from to The kings of France and Scotland and the dukes of Burgundy played the two factions off against each other, pledging military and financial aid and offering asylum to defeated nobles and pretenders, to prevent a strong and unified England from being able to make war on them.

The above-listed individuals with well-defined sides are coloured with red borders for Lancastrians and blue for Yorkists The Kingmaker, his relatives and George Plantagenet changed sides, so they are represented with a purple border. Sources: [57] [58] [59].

The hinge point in the succession dispute is the forced abdication of Richard II and whether it was lawful or not. Following that event, Richard's legitimate successor would be Henry Bolingbroke if strict Salic inheritance were adhered to, or Anne Mortimer if male-preference primogeniture , which eventually became the standard form of succession until the Succession to the Crown Act , were adhered to. Following defeat in the Hundred Years' War , English landowners complained vociferously about the financial losses resulting from the loss of their continental holdings; this is often considered a contributory cause of the Wars of the Roses.

At the end of the Hundred Years' War, large numbers of unemployed soldiery returned to England seeking employment in the growing armies of the local nobility.

England drifted toward misrule and violence under the weak governance as local noble families like the Nevilles and Percys increasingly relied on their feudal retainers to settle disputes. It became common practice for landowners to bind their mesnie knights to their service with annual payments. Edward III had developed the contract system where the monarch entered into formal written contracts called indenture with experienced captains who were contractually obliged to provide an agreed-upon number of men, at established rates for a given period.

Frequently the landed nobility acted the principal or main contractor. Knights, men at arms and archers were often sub-contracted. Skilled archers could command as high a wage as knights.

Support for each house largely depended upon dynastic factors, such as blood relationships, marriages within the nobility and the grants or confiscations of feudal titles and lands. Given the conflicting loyalties of blood, marriage, and ambition, it was not uncommon for nobles to switch sides; several battles such as Northampton and Bosworth were decided by treachery.

The armies consisted of nobles' contingents of men-at-arms, with companies of archers and foot-soldiers such as billmen. There were sometimes contingents of foreign mercenaries, armed with cannon or handguns. The horsemen were generally restricted to "prickers" and "scourers"; i. Much like their campaigns in France, it was customary for the English gentry to fight entirely on foot.

It was often claimed that the nobles faced greater risks than the ordinary soldiers as there was little incentive for anyone to take prisoner any high-ranking noble during or immediately after a battle. During the Hundred Years' War against France, a captured noble would be able to ransom himself for a large sum but in the Wars of the Roses, a captured noble who belonged to a defeated faction had a high chance of being executed as a traitor.

Forty-two captured knights were executed after the Battle of Towton. King Edward told me in all the battles which he had won, as soon as he had gained a victory, he mounted his horse and shouted to his men that they must spare the common soldiers and kill the lords, of whom none or few escaped.

Even those who escaped execution might be declared attainted therefore possess no property and be of no value to a captor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wars of the Roses disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. England , Wales , Calais. Wars of the Roses. The White Rose of the House of York. The Red Rose of the House of Lancaster. Further information: Buckingham's rebellion.

If your essay Primary Homework Help War Of The Roses is already written and needs to be corrected for proper syntax, grammar and spelling, this option is for you. We can either improve your writing before your teacher sees the work, or make corrections after. 24/7 Primary Homework Help Tudors War Of The Roses support We provide affordable writing services for students around the world. That’s why we work without a break to help you at any time, wherever you are located. Contact us for cheap writing assistance/10(). The War of Roses. The Wars of the Roses were a series of civil wars fought in medieval England from to For thirty - two years, a bitter struggle for the English throne was waged between two branches on the same family, the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both descended from Edward lll.. The War of the Roses began in , when many barons resented the way that the.


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